Il vissuto degli Infermieri di Area Critica durante la pandemia da COVID-19: uno studio qualitativo

Lucia Dignani, Milena Giovanna Guarinoni, Valentina Calisse, Susi Girotti, Andrea Toccaceli

Abstract

Introduzione: La pandemia da COVID-19 ha determinato un forte impatto sui sistemi sanitari di tutto il mondo. Gli operatori sanitari, e gli Infermieri in particolare, hanno dovuto affrontare importanti sfide cliniche ed organizzative, mettendo a rischio la propria incolumità.
Risulta quindi interessante comprendere l’esperienza dei sanitari che lavorano in prima linea nella gestione dell’emergenza sanitaria.
Obiettivi: L’obiettivo dello studio era di esplorare il vissuto degli Infermieri di area critica impiegati nell’assistenza a pazienti affetti da COVID-19.
Materiali e metodi: È stato condotto uno studio qualitativo fenomenologico descrittivo. Sono stati arruolati gli Infermieri di Pronto Soccorso e Terapia Intensiva di un DEA di 2° livello impegnati nell’assistenza a pazienti con SARS-CoV2, nel periodo aprile-maggio 2020. La raccolta dati è avvenuta attraverso interviste non strutturate, audio registrate, face-to-face. Le interviste sono state trascritte e analizzate.
Risultati: Sono state condotte 12 interviste in cui sono emersi 6 temi e 17 sottocategorie. Le aree tematiche evidenziate erano: impatto emotivo, rapporto con i pazienti, ambiente lavorativo, Dispositivi di Protezione Individuale, ambiente familiare, adattamento.
Discussione: I temi emersi hanno evidenziato l’esperienza vissuta dagli Infermieri, suggerendo che la pandemia ha determinato un forte impatto sia sulla sfera lavorativa che su quella personale dei professionisti, in linea con la letteratura internazionale.
Conclusioni: Lo studio ha fornito importanti informazioni sull’impatto emotivo e lavorativo che la pandemia ha avuto sugli Infermieri. Comprendere l’esperienza degli operatori di prima linea è essenziale per mettere in atto strategie efficaci per ridurre lo stress, il burnout e migliorare la qualità assistenziale.
Parole Chiave: epidemia da coronavirus, COVID-19, esperienza, ricerca qualitativa.

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