La somministrazione dei farmaci per via intranasale in ambito extra-ospedaliero: una revisione narrativa della letteratura

Luigi Luca Izzo, Stefano Trapassi, Lorenzo Righi

Abstract

Nel contesto delle emergenze extra-ospedaliere, è frequente la necessità di un trattamento farmacologico tempestivo ma allo stesso tempo altamente efficace del paziente, due qualità non sempre facilmente coniugabili. La via endovenosa è considerata dalla letteratura il gold standard nei setting emergenziali per la sua elevata efficacia ma il reperimento di un accesso venoso, nel complesso e variegato ambiente extra-ospedaliero, può risultare difficoltoso o impossibile, determinando un ritardato trattamento del paziente. Non meno importante è la questione relativa alle punture accidentali con aghi, criticità che si acuisce nei momenti concitati dell’emergenza, soprattutto nei precari setting pre-ospedalieri. Obiettivo di questa revisione è comprendere come la somministrazione intranasale di farmaci sia una via alternativa in ambito extra-ospedaliero in termini di efficacia, rapidità, semplicità di impiego e sicurezza.

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